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IS 14985 (2001, Reaffirmed 2007) : Methyl Acrylate and Ethyl 
Acrylate — Code of Safety. ICS 71.080.70 



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Invent a New India Using Knowledge 



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ISAWW85 : 2001 

vurfkwm -•••• 21? 

Indian Standard 

METHYL ACRYLATE AND ETHYL 
ACRYLATE — CODE OF SAFETY 



ICS 71.080.70 



©BIS 20)1 

BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS 

MANAK BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH ZAFAR MARG 
NEW DELHI 110002 

December 2001 Price Group 6 



Chemical Hazards Sectional Committee, CHD 7 



FOREWORD 

This Indian Standard was adopted by the Bureau of Indian Standards, after the draft finalized by the Chemical 
Hazards Sectional Committee had been approved by the Chemical Division Council. 

Methyl acrylate is used in the manufacture of leather finish resins, plastic films, textile and paper coatings. 
Methyl acrylate producing the hardest resins of acrylate ester series is used in the manufacture of acrylic fibres 
as the comonomer of acrylonitrile because its presence facilitates the spinning of fibres. It is also used in the 
dentistry, medicine pharmaceuticals and for polymerization of radioactive wastes. Ethyl acrylate is used in the 
manufacture of water emulsion paints, leather finish resins textile and paper coatings, and adhesives. It imparts 
flexibility to hard films. 

Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate both in liquid and vapour forms are corrosive to eyes and get absorbed 
through skin, and irritates the respiratory systems. 

There is no ISO standard on the subject. In the preparation of this code considerable assistance has been 
derived from the following publications: 

a) Dangerous properties of industrial materials (7th edition) by N. Irving Sax. 

b) Chemical safety date sheet- SD - 79 for Methyl Acrylate and Ethyl Acrylate (adopted- April 1960), prepared 
by Manufacturing Chemists Association, U.S.A. 

c) NIOSH/OSH A Pockets guide to chemical hazards, published by U.S Department of Labour Occupational 
Safety and Health Administration. 

The Composition of the Committee responsible for formulation of this standard is given in Annex A. 



IS 14985 : 2001 



Indian Standard 



METHYL ACRYLATE AND ETHYL 
ACRYLATE — CODE OF SAFETY 



I SCOPE 



1.1 This standard describes the properties of methyl 
acrylate and ethyl acrylate, nature of hazards associated 
with it, safety measures for controlling hazards, essential 
information on symptoms of poisoning, first aid, 
medical treatment, storage, handling, labelling and 
employees safety. 

1.2 This standard does not however deal with 
specifications for design of buildings, chemical 
engineering paints, method and ingredients used in 
the manufacture, equipment for waste disposal and 
operation control 

2 REFERENCE 

The Indian Standard listed below contains provision 
which through reference in this text, constitutes 
provision of this standard. At the time of publication, 
the edition indicated was valid. All standards are 
subject to revision, and parties to agreements based 
on this standard are encouraged to investigate the 
possibility of applying the most recent edition of the 
standard. 

IS No. Title 

4155 : 1966 Glossary of terms relating to chemical 

and radiation hazards and hazardous 
chemicals 

3 TERMINOLOGY 

For the purpose of this standard the definitions given 
in IS 4155 shall apply. 

4 GENERAL INFORMATION AND PROPERTIES 

4.1 General Informations 

Some of the general informations about methyl acrylate 
and ethyl acrylate are given in Table 1. 

4.2 Physical Properties 

Some of the important physical properties of methyl 
acrylate and ethyl acrylate are given in Table 2. 

43 Fire and Explosion Hazards 

4,3.1 Some of the important fire and explosion hazards 
of methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are given in 
Tabie3. 



Table 1 General Informations 




(Clause 4.1) 




SI Characteristic 


Methyl 


Ethyl 


No. 


Acrylate 


Acrylate 


(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


i) Common name 


Methyl acrylate 


Ethyl acrylate 


ii) Chemical name 


Methyl acrylate 


Ethyl acrylate 


iii) Empirical formul 


a CH 2 = CHCOOCH 3 


CH 2 = CHCOOC 2 H, 


iv) Molecular mass 


86 


100 


v) CAS No, 


96-33-3 


140-88-5 


vi) UN No. 


1919 


1917 


vii) UN Class 


3 


3 


viii) Hazchem Code 


3WE 


3WE 


ix) NFPA Hazard Index 




a) Health 


2 


2 


b) Flamability 


3 


3 


c) Reactivity 


2 


2 


Table 2 


Physical Properties 




(Clause 42) 




SI Characteristic 


Methyl 


Ethyl 


No. 


Acrylate 


Acrylate 


(1) (2) 


(3) 


(4) 


i) Physical state 


Liquid 


Liquid 


ii) Odour 


Acrid odour, 


Acrid penetrating 




lacrimator 


odour, lacrimator 


iii) Vapour density 


2.95 


3.45 


(air = 1) 






iv) Boiling point, °C 


80.3 


99.4 


at 760 mm Hg 






v) Specific gravity at 


0.956 


0.940 


20°C/4°C 






vi) Freezing point °C 


(-)75 


(-)72 


vii) Refractive index, 


at 




20°C 


1.404 


1.406 8 


25°C 


1.400 3 


1.403 2 


viii) Solubility in water, 5.00 


1.50 


g/100 g, at 25°C 






ix) Solubility of water in 2.5 


1.5 


monomer, g/100 g 


[at 




23° C 






x) Specific heat, 


0.48 


0.47 


kJ/ mole-K 






xi) Vapour pressure, 
at 
-20°C 


kPa, 




0.85 


0.31 


-10°C 


1.72 


0.61 


o°c 


3.12 


1.16 


20°C 


5.40 


2.20 


50°C 


34,0 


16.8 


xii) Viscosity at 25° C, 


0.49 


0.55 


mPa.s 







4.3.2 Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate have low flash 
points, flammable liquids and their vapours, form 
explosive mixtures with air over a wide range of 
concentrations. Both monomers are quite volatile and 
* their vapours being heavier than air, tend to accumulate 



1 



IS 14985 : 2001 



at low points, may travel along the ground and distant 
ignition possible. Both react violently with oxidants. 
Ethyl acrylate reacts violently with chlorosulphonic 
acid. Polymerization may be initiated by ultra-violet light 
and heating, if uncontrolled, may result into explosion. 

Table3 Fire and Explosion Hazard Properties 
(Clause 43.1) 

Methyl Ethyl 
Acrylate Acrylate 
(3) 



Table 4 Toxicity Data 
(Clause 5.13) 



SI Characteristic 


No. 


(0 (2) 


(4) 


i) Flash point, C 


Closed cup 


Open cup 


ii) Explosives limits 


(percent volume in air) 


LEL 


UEL 



(-)3 
(-)2 



2.8 
25 



iii) Heat of evaporation, kcal/mole 8.25 

iv) Heat of polymerization, kcal/mole 18.8 



9 
19 



1.4 
14 

8.27 

18.6 



v) Heat of combustion, kcal/mole 
vi) Auto ignition temperature, °C 



502.88 655.49 
463 345 



4.3.3 Polymerization Hazards 

Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate polymerize readily 
at room temperature unless properly inhibited. 
Considerable heat is evolved during polymerization and 
explosive forces may develop if the material is in a closed 
container. 

5 TOXICITY AND HEALTH HAZARDS 

5.1 Routes of Entry 

5.1.1 Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are irritants 
for the skin, mucous membranes and the 
gastrointestinal tract. They may be absorbed through 
the skin, gastrointestinal system or the lungs. Systemic 
absorption may lead to degenerative changes in the 
liver and kidneys. 

5.1 .2 Accidental industrial exposure may occur in three 
ways: 

a) acute exposure to high vapour concentrations, 

b) prolonged exposure to lower vapour 
concentrations, and 

c) liquid absorption of eyes or skin. 

5.1.3 The vapour pressures of both methyl acrylate 
and ethyl acrylate are such that air concentrations 
above the threshold limit may readily develop under 
many ordinary conditions of handling unless 
precautions are taken. Available toxicity data of methyl 
acrylate and ethyl acrylate are given in Table 4. 

5.2 Health Hazard 
5.2,1 Acute Toxicity 



SI 


Characteristic 


Methyl 


Ethyl 


No. 




Acrylate 


Acrylate 


(1) 


(2) 


(3) 


(4) 


i) 


TLV (skin) 


10 ppm 


5 ppm 






(35 mg/m 3 ) 


(20 mg/m 3 ) 


ii) 


TWA, ppm 


2 


5 


iii) 


STEL, ppm 


_ 


15 


iv) 


TC L0 , ppm 
(human) 


75 


— 



5.2.1.1 Systemic effects 

Severe exposure to vapours or swallowing of the 
acrylate may be fatal. Oral intake is characterized by 
marked local irritation of the mouth and digestive 
system. Severe vapour exposure is indicated by extreme 
irritation of eyes and respiratory system. Death may 
result from pulmonary edema and from damage to 
internal organs. Terminal stages are marked by 
shortness of breath, blueness of the lips and 
convulsive movements 

5.2.1.2 Local effects 

Marked local irritation of the eyes and linings of the 
nose, throat and lungs results from acute vapour 
exposure. Eyes water considerably and chemical burns 
may develop on the cornea. Single exposure of intact 
skin does not result in significant irritation unless the 
monomer is held in close, covered contact with the 
skin as by clothing or gloves. 

5,2.2 Chronic Toxicity 

5.2.2,1 Systemic effects 

The odour and irritant effects of methyl acrylate and 
ethyl acrylate vapours are such as to preclude 
significant absorption in trained workman under 
conditions other than acute accidental exposure. 
Methyl acrylate is highly irritant and can cause 
sensitization. Chronic explosive may damage liver/ 
kidney tissues. Ethyl acrylate is grouped as Class 2B 
carcinogen according to the Encyclopedia of 
Occupational Health and Safety. 

5.2*2.2 Local effects 

Prolonged exposure for extended periods (16 h or more) 
to tolerable concentrations of vapours may result in 
eye irritation and injury. 

5,2.23 Warning properties 

The odour of methyl acrylate may be detected by most 
individuals at a concentration of about 20 ppm and of 
ethyl acrylate at about 8 ppm. Odour detection has 
little practical value in chronic repeated exposures since 
most workers become less sensitive to the odour and 
will tolerate atmospheric concentrations greater than 
the threshold limits. On the other hand, the odour 



IS 14985 : 2001 



becomes disagreeable and irritation of the eyes and 
mucous membranes is experienced beginning at about 
75 ppm and these symptoms, if needed, constitute 
adequate warning for acute exposures. 

6 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 

6.1 AvailabiMtyandUse 

6.1,1 While personal protective equipment is not an 
adequate substitute for good, safe working conditions, 
adequate ventilation and intelligent conduct on the 
part of employees working with methyl acrylate and 
ethyl acrylate, is, in many instances, the only practical 
means of protecting the worker. In emergency 
situations one should keep firmly in mind that personal 
protective equipment protects only the worker wearing 
it, and other unprotected workers in the area may be 
exposed to danger. 

6.1 2 The correct use of personal protective equipment 
requires the education to the worker in proper 
employment of the equipment available to him. 
Hazardous conditions require personal protective 
equipment, its use should be supervised and the type 
of equipment should be capable to give provision 
against any potential hazard. 

6.2 Eye Protection 

6.2.1 Chemical Safety Goggles 

Cup type or rubber framed safety goggles, equipped 
with the approved impact resistant glass or plastic 
lenses, should be worn whenever there is danger of 
methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate coming in contact with 
the eyes. Goggles should be carefully fitted to ensure 
maximum protection and comfort. 

6.2.2 Spectacle Type Saftey Goggles 

Metal or plastic rim safety spectacles with imperforated 
side shields which may be obtained with prescription 
lenses or suitable all plastic safety goggles, may be 
used where continuous eye protection is desirable, as 
in laboratories. These types, however, should not be 
used where complete eye protection against methyl 
acrylate or ethyl acrylate is needed. 

6.2.3 Face Shields 

Plastic shields (full length.) with forehead protection 
may be worn in addition to chemical safety goggles 

where complete face protection is desirable. Chemical 
safety goggles should always be worn as added 
protection where there is danger of material striking 
the eyes from underneath or around the sides of the 
face shield. 

63 Respiratory Protection 

6.3.1 Severe exposure to methyl acrylate or ethyl 

acrylates may occur in tanks during equipment cleaning 



and repairs, when decontaminating areas following 
spills, or in case of failure of piping or equipment. 
Employees who may be subject to such exposures 
should be provided with proper respiratory protective 
equipment and trained in their use and care. 

63.2 Self contained breathing apparatus which 
permits the wearer to carry a supply of oxygen or air 
compressed in the cylinder, and allows considerable 
mobility. The length of time a self-contained breathing 
apparatus provides protection varies according to the 
amount of air or oxygen or regenerating material carried. 
Compressed oxygen should not be used where there is 
danger of contact with flammable liquids, vapours, or 
sources of ignition, especially in confined spaces such 
as tanks or pits 

633 Positive pressure hose masks which are supplied 
by blowers requiring no internal lubrication. The wearer 
must be able to use the same route for exit as for entrance 

and must take precautions to keep the hose line free of 
entanglement. The air blower must be placed in an area 
free of contaminants. 

63.4 Air-line masks supplied with clean compressed 

air are suitable for use only where conditions will permit 
safe escape in case of failure of the compressed air 
supply. These masks are usually supplied with air pipes 
to the area from a compressor. It is extremely important 

that the air supply is taken from a safe source, and that 
it is not contaminated. The safer method is .to use a 

separate compressor of the type not requiring internal 
lubrication. Pressure reducing and relief valves, as 
well as suitable traps and filters, must be installed at all 
mask stations. An alternate . arrangement frequently 
used is high pressure breathing air from standard 
(7 cm ) cylinders, with a demand type valve and face 
piece. This arrangement may also be used with 
25-50 kg, clean piped plant air, and, as an additional 
precaution with the demand mask, a small cylinder of 
compressed air may be worn for use as an emergency 
escape from the area. Consult a reliable safety 
equipment dealer for details on the proper use of 
equipment approved by Bureau of Mines. 

63.5 Industrial canister type gas masks, equipped with 
full face pieces . fitted with the proper canister for 
absorbing methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate vapour, will 
afford protection against concentrations not exceeding 
2 percent by volume when used in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. The oxygen content of 
the air must not be less than 1.6 percent by volume. 
The masks should be used for relatively short exposure 
periods only. They may not be suitable for use in an 
emergency since, at that time, the actual vapour 
concentration is unknown and an oxygen deficiency 
may exist. The wearer must be warned to leave the 
contaminated area immediately on detecting the odour 
of a harmful vapour. This may indicate that the mask is 



IS 14985 : 2001 



not functioning properly, that the vapour canister is 
exhausted or that the mask is not properly fitted. 

NOTE - — Where carbon monoxide or other gas having little 
or no odour may be encountered in addition to methyl 
acrylate or ethyl acrylate, the mask should be equipped with 
an "all purpose canister" and a "time device". 

63.6 Chemical cartridge respirators may be used to 
avoid inhaling disagreeable but relatively harmless 
concentrations of methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate 
vapour. These respirators, however, are not 
recommended for protection where toxic quantities may 
be encountered. 

CAUTION — Filter type respirators do not offer protection 
against gases and are unsuitable for use when working with 
methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate. 

6.4 Head Protection 

"Hard" hats should be worn where there is danger 
from failing objects. If hard hats are not 
considered necessary, soft-brimmed hats or caps may 
be worn to give protection against liquid spillage and 
splashes. 

6.5 Foot Protection 

6.5.1 Leather safety shoes with built-in-steel toe caps 
are recommended for workers handling drums and cans 
of methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate. Neoprene or plastic 
overshoes may be worn over leather safety shoes. 
Overshoes and shoes should be thoroughly cleaned 
and ventilated after contamination. 

6.5.2 Liquid methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate will 
penetrate leather shoe tops readily, and if allowed to 
remain in contact with the foot, will produce severe 
irritation. Contaminated shoes should be removed 
promptly and thoroughly dried before re wearing. 

6.6 Body, Skin and Hand Protection 

6.6.1 Sustained or intermittent skin contact with liquid 
methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate may produce dermatitis 
at the site of contact. It is imperative that contaminated 
clothing be removed promptly and laundered before 
reuse. Affected areas of the body should be washed 
with water alone. As a general hygienic measure, 
facilities for personal cleanliness should be provided 
and washing before lunch and at the end of the work 
day should be encouraged. 

6.6.2 Clothing made of rubber or other impervious 
material may be worn to protect the body against 
splashes. Neoprene or PVC gloves should be used for 
hand protection (cloth or leather gloves are not 
adequate). These garments must be cleaned inside 
and out each time they are used. 



7 STORAGE, HANDLING, LABELLING AND 
TRANSPORT 

7.1 Handling and Storage 

7.1.1 General 

All precautions should be taken to safeguard the 
health of worker against health and fire hazards 
whenever methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate are handled 
and stored. Spark resistant tools should be used and 
the area should be posted with no-smoking or other 
appropriate signs. If leaks or spills occur, only properly 
protected personnel should enter the area. Leaking 
containers should be removed to the outdoors or to an 
isolated, well ventilated area and the contents 
transferred to other suitable containers. Gaskets in 
general should be flushed on the inside and not extend 
into the column or pipes, as polymer tends to get 
affected and brown at such points. 

7.1.2 Small Containers 

Glass bottles should be handled carefully to prevent 
breakage. Vapours of methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate 
should not be allowed to come into contact with open 
flame or other sources of ignition. Bottles or cans which 
are not returnable, care should be taken to avoid 
discarding such empty containers near sources of 
ignition or where unauthorized persons might handle 
them . They should be flushed out with water and left 
uncapped. 

7.13 Drums 

7.1.3.1 Handling 

When a truck load of drums containing methyl acrylate 
or ethyl acrylate is received the truck doors should be 
opened to allow thorough ventilation of the vehicle 
before it is entered. Each shipment should be examined 
for leaking drums. 

7.1.3.2 Emptying 

Before drums are opened, they should be supported 
and grounded. Drums should be opened with spark 
resistant tools and fittings and never be struck with 
tools or other hard objects which may cause sparking. 

7.133 To remove the body plug from a drum of methyl 
acrylate or ethyl acrylate, the operator should wear 
goggles and use bung or plug wrench. He should 
place the bung up stand to one side with face away 
during the operation. After the plug beings to loosen 
it should be given not more than one full turn. If internal 
pressure exists, it should be allowed to escape to the 
atmosphere. Then only should the operator be allowed 
to loose the plug further and remove it. 

7.13.4 The preferable safe method for emptying drums 
is by hand pump or electrical pumps with explosion 



IS 14985 : 2001 



proof motors. The use of pressure for emptying drums 
is not recommended. 

7.1.4 Disposal 

If any metal drums are to be scrapped they would be 
drained completely and then steamed to remove 
vapours. They should be made unusable by crushing 
or piercing. 

7.1.5 Storage 

Methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate polymerize readily at 
room temperatures unless properly inhibited. 
Considerable heat is evolve during polymerization and 
explosive forces may develop if the material is in a closed 
container. These monomers should be stored at 
temperatures recommended by the manufacturers. 
Prolonged storage should be avoided. 

7.1.6 Storage Conditions 

7.1.6.1 Methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate are normally 
inhibited before storage. Acrylates should never be 
stored under an inert gas atmosphere as some dissolved 
oxygen is necessary for the inhibitor system. If 
uninhibited monomer has been handled it shall be 
immediately cooled to 4°C and held in refrigerated tanks. 
Uninhibited monomer should not be held more than 
3 days even under these conditions. 

7.1.6.2 Drums of inhibited methyl acrylate or ethyl 
acrylate should be stored in a cool place. While the 
inhibitor dosages used are adequate to prevent 
uncontrolled polymerization even on prolonged storage 
at temperatures as high as 38°C. It is suggested that as 
an additional safeguard, storage conditions should be 
such that temperature above 38°C are avoided or at 
least not encountered for any significant proportion of 
the expected storage time. Of course, even though 
uncontrolled polymerization will not take place even 
on prolonged storage at temperatures as high as 38°C, 
there exists a possibility of quality deterioration, 
particularly if storage at these temperatures is 
prolonged. Experience has shown that for the most 
critical applications particularly for the lower inhibitor 
concentrations where methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate 
are used without inhibitor removal, the storage 
temperature should be held below 10°C. 

7.1.7 Indoor Storage 

7.1.7.1 When filled drums or other containers are stored 
indoors, they should be stored in non-combustible, 
well ventilated structures. When filled drums, or other 
containers are stored in separate storage rooms, floor 
drains should be provided. The floors should be 
pitched to the drains and the latter should lead to a 
safe location. In case, no drains are provided, 10 mm 
curbs or a drained gutter, covered with an appropriate 
grills should be constructed at door openings. In either 
case, only those properly protected should attempt to 



clean up areas in which methyl acrylate and ethyl 
acrylate has been spilled. 

7.1.7.2 All storage areas should be provided with 
automatic sprinklers or some other adequate 
extinguishing system. 

7.1.7.3 Methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate should not 
be stored in glass bottles or containers or near other 
combustibles, acids in glass bottles or containers or 
near other combustibles, acids and oxidizing materials. 
Safety cans with pouring outlets equipped with tight 
fitting caps or valves normally closed by springs and 
with fire baffles in the outlets should be used. 

7.1.8 Bulk Storage 

Since the bulk storage of methyl acrylate or ethyl 
acrylate in above or underground tanks poses many 
problems relating to such factors as size of vents, diking, 
and separation distances, which depend upon other 
variables such as nature of the tank contents, tank wall 
thickness, or protection, it is recommended that tank 
storage requirements be determined through 
consultation with qualified fire protection engineers, 
the fire insurance carriers concerned and manufacturers 
of methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate. 

7.1.9 Ventilation 

Good ventilation is essential in rooms or areas where 
methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are handled to 
prevent the accumulation of explosive or toxic mixtures. 
The type of ventilation needed will depend upon 
several factors as like vapour density, dead air spaces, 
temperature, convection currents, wind direction 
which must be considered by the engineer when 
determining equipment location, type and capacity. If 
mechanical ventilation is used, spark proof fans are 
recommended and electrical equipment should meet 
national electrical code requirements. 

7.1.10 Electrical Equipment 

Wiring in the immediate area should be Class I, Division 
I, when equipment using methyl acrylate or ethyl 
acrylate is located in large area. The electrical equipment 
in the immediate area should be Class I, Division I. 
Where not exposed to the possibility of solvent spills, 
the wiring should be weather tight. It is recommended 
that the areas be carefully surveyed by a qualified fire 
protection engineer. Flash lights should be approved 
for the exposure. 

7.1.11 Over Heating 

Automatic temperature controls are recommended for 
processes where methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate 
are heated; but even with these, close supervision is 
necessary because the methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate 
or its mixture is highly combustible. 

Low pressure steam or hot water is recommended for 

heating methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate mixtures in 
which either of them are used. 



IS 14985 : 2001 



7.1.12 Static Electricity 

Sparks from static electricity may ignite methyl acrylate 
and ethyl acrylate vapour and air mixtures. Methyl 
acrylate and ethyl acrylate flowing through or being 
discharged from a line, generates static electricity. 
Therefore, an effective grounding of the line is 
necessary to prevent possible fire and explosion 
hazards. 

7.1.13 Before methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate is 
poured or discharged from one metal container to 
another, the two vessels should be grounded and 
electrically interconnected. All metal surfaces with 
which methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate comes in contact 
should be grounded and bonded so that the resistance 
to ground is not greater than 5 ohms. This applies to 
all metal equipment and piping such as tanks, mixers, 
stills and pipelines. Where drive belts are necessary, 
conductive 'V* belts are recommended. Pulley and drive 
shafts should be grounded. Non-conductive drive 
belts may accumulate an electric charge and their use 
should be avoided. 

7.2 Labelling 

Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are classified as 
flammable liquids. Packages containing inside 
containers of one-quarter capacity or larger shall be 
packed with filling holes up, and the container outside 
shall be plainly marked "THIS SIDE UP". Drums and 
each box containing inside containers must bear the 
red label for "Flammable Liquids". All containers of 
methyl acrylate should bear the following label in 
addition to or in combination with any label, warning 
or other statement required by statutory, regulations 
or ordinances: 

METHYL ACRYLATE/ETHYL ACRYLATE 
( Inhibited with — — ) 

WARNING -FLAMMABLE 

VAPOUR HARMFUL 

MAY IRRITATE SKIN AND EYES 

Keep away from heat, sparks and open flame. 

Keep containers closed. 

Use only with adequate ventilation. 

Avoid breathing vapour. 

Avoid contact with skin, eyes and clothing. 

In case of contact, immediately flush skin or eyes with 
plenty of water for at least 15 min; for eyes, get medical 
attention. Remove and wash contaminated clothing 
before reuse. 

NOTE — The same label is recommended for ethyl acrylate. 

13 Transport 

7.3.1 Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate is usually 
transported through pipeline and tankers. Tank lorries 



should conform to the Static and Mobile Pressure 
Vessels (Unfired) [SMPV(U)], Rules 1981 and should 
be approved and licensed by the Chief Controller of 

Explosives. 

73,2 Proper working, a label and signs should be 
worked on the tanker. The tanker shall have a placard 
class label of "Flammable". A slight higher pressure 
above atmosphere should be maintained inside the filled 
tanker out of contact with air or oxygen. Two fire 
extinguishers should be fixed on each tank lorry. 

8 TANK CLEANING/REPAIRS 

8.1 Preparation of Tank and Equipment 

8.1.1 Tank cleaning should be under the direction of 
thoroughly qualified supervisors who are fully familiar 
with all the hazards and the safeguards necessary for 
the safe performance of work. 

8.1.2 It should be ascertained that all sources of 
ignition have been eliminated from the vicinity of the 
tank. All pipelines to the tank should be disconnected 
and all connecting lines should be blanked off 
Agitators, if any, should be disconnected or locked 
off. Methyl acrylate or eth>! acrylate vapours being 
heavier than air, will flow out of bottom openings and 
may travel considerable distances to sources of 
ignition. Provisions shall be made regarding this hazard. 

8.1.3 Tanks and equipment, pumps, lines and valves 
should always be drained and thoroughly flushed with 
water before being repaired. Workmen should never 
be allowed to attempt to repair equipment while it is in 
operation and the lines full. If pipe sections are to be 
removed and flanged opened, the lower bolts should 
be loosened first and although the lines have been 
flushed, care should be taken to avoid personal contact 
with the liquid draining or dripping from the equipment. 
Spillage from the lines or equipment should be removed 
immediately by flushing to the drain with large 
quantities of water. 

8.1.4 Except in large tanks, steam is recommended for 
removing vapours and accumulations from tanks. The 
steam lines should be large enough to raise the tank 
temperature above the boiling point of methyl acrylate 
and ethyl acrylate and the steaming should be 
continued until all vapours have bet n removed. If steam 
is not available, the tank may be flushed by filling with 
water and draining to the sewer. This procedure should 
be repeated several times. After the tank has been 
steamed, it should be cooled, preferably by filling with 
water and draining. The volatilized methyl acrylate or 
ethyl acrylate in the steam effluent should not be of 
sufficient concentration to contaminate the work area 
in excess of safe limits. The steam and water line 
should be (electrically connected) to the tank shell to 
prevent the accumulation of static electricity. 



IS 14985 : 2001 



8c 1.5 The tank should then be purged with fresh air 
and the atmosphere in the tank tested with an approved 
combustible gas taking the sample for the test from the 
bottom of the tank . If the gas indicator shows that any 
flammable vapours are present, the steaming and 
washing operation should be repeated until the tank is 
free of all flammable vapours. 

8,2 Entering Tank 

8.2.1 No one should enter a tank or confined space 
until a work permit has been signed by an authorized 
person indicating that the area has been tested for 
absence of toxic gas and for sufficiency of oxygen and 
found to be safe. Furthermore, no workmen should 
enter a tank or vessel that does not have a manhole or 
opening large enough to admit a person wearing a 
safety harness, life line and emergency respiratory 
equipment. It should be ascertained that the tank or 
vessel may be left by the original entrance. One man 
on the outside of the tank should keep the men in the 
tank under observation and another man should be 
available nearby to aid in rescue if any of the men in the 
tank are overcome. 

8.2.2 A supplied-air respirator or self-contained 
breathing apparatus together with rescue harness and 
life line should always be located outside the tank 
entrance for rescue purposes, regardless of the type of 
respiratory equipment or air supply which is provided 
for employees inside the tank. 

8.23 Special ventilation is recommended during the 
entire time when men are cleaning, repairing or 
inspecting the tank. Ventilation may be accomplished 
by exhausting or removing vapours from the bottom of 
the tank either through its bottom openings or by 
means of a large flexible duct where tanks have a top 
opening only. The blowers or air movers used for 
ventilation to ensure against oxygen deficiency should 
be sparkproof and they should be cleaned frequently 
so that moving parts will not set up frictional heat which 
may cause ignition of the vapour. On tanks having 
only a top opening, care shall be exercised to insure 
complete removal of vapours from the entire tank. Care 
shall also be taken to avoid having exhaust gases 
recycled into the tank. 

8.2.4 During the course of the work, frequent tests 
should be made to determine that the atmosphere in 
the tank is being maintained within a safe range. This 
precaution is necessary because residues not 
completely removed by washing may recontami nation 
the tank atmosphere. Tests for oxygen sufficiency 
should also be made. 

83 Emergency Rescue 

Under no circumstances should a rescuer enter a tank 
to remove a victim of over-exposure without proper 



respiratory protection, a safety harness and an attached 
life line. The free end of the life line should be manned 
by an attendant located outside of the tank. Another 
attendant should be immediately available to assist in 
the rescue, if needed. The rescuer should be in view of 
the outside attendant at all times or in constant 
communication with him. 

8.4 Repairing Work 

8.4.1 Exterior tank repair, including repairs to steam 
coils, cutting, riveting and welding, should be permitted 
only after thorough cleaning and testing of the tank to 
make sure it is free of vapours and after a work permit 
has been issued by an authorized person. Repeated 
tests with an approved combustible gas meter should 
be made to fully protect the workmen. 

8.4.2 All outside welding or burning on tanks or 
equipment which have contained methyl acrylate or 
ethyl acrylate should be done only after such containers 
have been completely purged with steam. Purging 
should be continued while repair work is in progress 
and frequent checks made as for internal work. Filling 
clean, empty tanks with water or with inert gas is also 
satisfactory for outside work. 

8.43 In all cases, if repair work is interrupted, the tank 
atmosphere should be checked thoroughly and a new 
work permit issued before resumption of work. 

8.4.4 When it is necessary to remove polymer from 
the equipment, the section should be removed to an 
isolated burning-area and the polymer burned off by 
means of a torch. Polymer should not be burned from 
a confined section, such as condenser tubes, unless a 
hole is drilled completely through the polymer to permit 
the combustion gases to escape. 

9 SPILLAGE/LEAKAGE AND WASTE DISPOSAL 

9.1 Spillage/Leakage 

9.1.1 If leaks or spills occur, only properly protected 
personnel should enter the area. 

9.1.2 Frequent equipment inspections should be made 
to detect or prevent leaks. 

9,13 Spilled methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate should 
never be left unattended. Immediately flush with large 
quantity of water; but excessive quantity of these 
monomers should not be permitted to enter drains or 
sewers where there is a danger of vapours becoming 
ignited, or of contaminating public water supply. These 
chemicals in the monomelic stage, will impart taste and 
odour to water supplies at low concentrations. 

9.1.4 Leak containers should be removed to outdoors 
or to an isolated, well ventilated area and the contents 
transferred to other suitable containers. 



IS 14985 : 2001 



9.2 Waste Disposal 

9.2.1 Waste disposal of methyl acrylate, ethyl acrylate 
and materials reacted or contaminated with them 
depends to a great extent on local conditions. The 
chemicals, in the monomeric state, even at low 
concentration will impart taste and odour to water. Be 
sore that all state and local regulations regarding health 
and pollution are observed. 

9.2.2 Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate waste in dilute 
concentrations is readily decomposed and taste and 
odour properties destroyed by biological oxidation 
systems employed by industrial waste and local sewage 
treatment plants to which they may be sent for disposal. 
High concentrations of these wastes may be burned. 

9.23 Waste mixtures containing methyl acrylate or 
ethyl acrylate should not be allowed to enter a drain or 
sewer system in which vapours could accumulate and 
become ignited. 

10 FIRE FIGHTING 

10.1 Fires involving methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate 
may be extinguished with carbon dioxide, dry chemical, 
vaporizing liquids and foam. Water spray is effective 
for controlling methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate fires in 
open containers when properly applied. 

10.1.1 When fires occur in the vicinity of methyl 
acrylate and ethyl acrylate storage areas it is particularly 
important to cool the tanks or drums with water hose 
streams since the exposure heat from the fire may be 
sufficient to induce polymerization even though it is 
below the actual ignition temperature of the monomers. 

10.1.2 When fighting fires involving methyl acrylate 
or ethyl acrylate, firemen should be equipped with 
standard fireman's clothing plus adequate eye 
protection. If fire-fighting involves work in close or 
confined quarters, the firemen shall be equipped with 
proper respiratory protection. 

11 TRAINING AND HEALTH MONITORING 
11.1 Employee Education and Training 

11.1.1 Methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate do not pose 
serious industrial hazards 'when their use is properly 
controlled through the application of engineering 
measures and workers are provided with proper 
protective equipment and are effectively instructed and 
supervised in proper handling procedures. 

11.1.2 Safety in handling methyl acrylate and ethyl 
acrylate depends to a great extent upon the 
effectiveness of employee education, proper safety 
instructions, intelligent supervision and the use of 
safety equipment. 



11X2.1 The education and training of employees in 
work safely and to use of the personal protective 
equipment or other safeguards provided for them is 
the responsibility of supervision. Training classes for 
both new and old employees should be conducted 
periodically to maintain a high degree of safety in 
handling procedures. Workers should be thoroughly 
informed of the hazards that may result from improper 
handling of methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate. They 
should be cautioned to prevent spills and thoroughly 
instructed regarding proper actions to be taken against 
them. Each employee should know what to do in an 
emergency and should be fully informed about first- 
aid measures. 

1L2 Health Monitoring 

11.2,1 Preventive Health Measures 

Methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate are not serious 
industrial hazards, if workers are adequately instructed 
and supervised in proper means of handling these 
chemicals. 

11. 2.1.1 Personal hygiene 

Personnel should be instructed and equipment 
designed to avoid contact with acrylates in liquid or 
vapour phase. Where excessive contact is unavoidable, 
adequate personal protective devices as described 
in 6,6 should be used. The necessity for immediate 
emergency under shower and prompt removal of all 
contaminated clothing following massive skin contact 
shall be stressed. Even minor splashes shall be washed 
off promptly and contaminated apparel shall be 
decontaminated. Particularly leather goods such as 
shoes and gloves, shall be removed, thoroughly 
washed and dried or laundered before wearing again. 
Adequate emergency showers, wash-up facilities and 
eye wash fountains should be available in accessible 
locations in areas where these acrylates are handled. 
Employees should be instructed to report promptly all 
symptoms such as irritation of eyes, nose and throat 
or lung congestion. 

11.2.1.2 Physical examinations 

a) Preplacement examinations — Preplacement 
examinations are advisable for all persons 
handling methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate. It may 
be advisable to exclude those persons having 
chronic or pre-existing diseases of the lungs, liver 
and kidneys from contact with methyl acrylate 
or ethyl acrylate. Persons with eye infections or 
conjunctivitis should not be exposed to acrylate 
vapours. 

b) Periodic health examinations — Employees 
regularly exposed to acrylates should have 
periodic medical evaluation. 



8 



IS 14985 : 2001 



12 FIRST AID 

First aid should be started at once in all cases of massive 
exposure or contact with methyl acrylate or ethyl 
acrylate. Refer case to a physician. 

12.1 Contact with Skin and Mucous Membranes 

Spills on skin or mucous membranes shall be washed 
off promptly with copious quantity of water. Remove 
clothing and continue washing with water and soap. 
Pay particular attention to hair, ears and other portions 
of body where chemical may not be easily flushed off. 
Contaminated clothing should not be re-worn until it is 
laundered. 

12.2 Contact with Eyes 

If methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate has entered the 
eyes, they should be washed promptly with copious 
quantities of water for at least 15 min. Medical attention 
should be obtained promptly. 

123 Taken Internally 

A physician should be called at once. Vomiting should 
be induced by giving large quantities of warm salt 
solution or by having the patient place his fmger in the 
back of his throat. When retching and vomiting begin, 
place the patient face down with his head lower than 
hips to prevent the vomits from entering the lungs. 
Keep the patient warm and comfortable. Oxygen may 
be administered as directed by the physician, if 
symptoms warrant it. 

12.4 Inhalation 

12.4.1 A worker who has been overcome by methyl 
acrylate or ethyl acrylate shall be carried at once into 
an uncontaminated atmosphere and effective artificial 
respiration initiated immediately if breathing has ceased. 
A physician should be called at once. 

12.4.2 If oxygen inhalation apparatus is available, 
oxygen should be administered, but only by a person 
authorized for such duty by a physician. 

12.4.3 The patient should be kept warm but not hot. 
Stimulants will rarely be necessary where adequate 
oxygenation is maintained. Any such drugs for shock 
treatment should be given only by an attending 



physician. Never attempt to give anything by mouth 
to an unconscious patient. 

12.5 Suggestions to Physicians 

12.5.1 Signs and symptoms of mucous membrance 
irritation and neurosis may be present following acute 
exposure to methyl acrylate or ethyl acrylate. These 
symptoms are not specific. Treatment is symptomatic 
and no specific antidotes are known. 

12.5.2 Oxygen Administration 

12.5.2.1 Oxygen has been found useful in the treatment 
of inhalation exposures of many chemicals, especially 
those capable of causing either immediate or delayed 
harmful effects in the lungs. 

12.5.2.2 In most exposures, administration of 100 
percent oxygen at atmospheric pressures has been 
found to be adequate. This is best accomplished by 
use of a face mask connected to the cylinder containing 
oxygen. Inhalation of 100 percent oxygen should not 
exceed one hour of continuous treatment. After that 
each therapy may be interrupted. It may be reinstituted 
as the clinical condition indicates. 

12.5.2.3 Some believe that superior results are 
obtained when exposure to lung irritants are treated 
with oxygen under an exhalation pressure not exceeding 
4 cm water. Masks providing for such exhalation 
pressures are obtainable. A single treatment may suffice 
for minor exposures to irritants. It is believed by some 
observers that oxygen under pressure is useful as an 
aid in the prevention of pulmonary edema after 
breathing irritants. 

12.5.2.4 In the event of an exposure causing 
symptoms or in the case of a history of severe exposure, 
the patient may be treated with oxygen under 4 cm 
exhalation pressure for one and a half hour periods out 
of every hour. Treatment may be continued in this way 
until symptoms subside or other clinical indications 
for interruption appear. 



CAUTION : It may not be advisable to administer oxygen 
under positive pressure in the presence of impending or 
existing cardiovascular failure. 



18 14985:2001 



ANNEX A 

( Foreword ) 

COMMITTEE COMPOSITION 

Chemical Hazards Sectional Committee, CHD 7 



Organization 
Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Hyderabad 
Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 
Central Warehousing Corporation, New Delhi 
Century Rayon, Kalyan 

Development Commissioner (SSI), New Delhi 

Department of Explosives, Nagpur 

Directorate General of Factory Advice Services & 
Labour Institute, Mumbai 

Excel Industries Limited, Mumbai 

Hindustan Organic Chemicals Limited, Rasayani 

Hindustan Lever Limited, Mumbai 

Indian Chemical Manufacturers' Association, New Delhi 
Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited, Birbhadra 
Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited, Vadodara 
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Lucknow 
Ministry of Defence (DGOF), Kolkata 

Ministry of Defence (DGQA), New Delhi 

Ministry of Defence (R&D), New Delhi 

Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi 

Ministry of Industry, Department of Industrial Policy & 
Promotion, New Delhi 

National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad 

National Organic Chemicals Limited, Mumbai 

National Safety Council, Mumbai 

Oil Industries Safety Directorate, Mumbai 

Projects & Development (I) Limited, Sindri 

SIEL, Chemical Complex, Punjab 

Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation, Chennai 

Tata AIG Risk Management Services Limited, Mumbai 

BIS Directorate General 



Representative(s) 

Dr K. V. Raghavan ( Chairman ) 

Shri P. K. Ghosh 

DrB. N. Rathi 

Representative 

Dr K. V. Ramalingam 

Shri Jayanta Adhia (Alternate) 

SHRIMAnSUNITA 

Dr H. Mukherjee 

Shri S. S. Gautam 

Dr Bru Mohan (Alternate) 

Shri P. M. Karia 

Shri Mohan Patil (Alternate) 

Shri V. H. Chudamani 

Shri A. G. Seshan (Alternate) # 

Dr A. Bhaskar 

Shri A. Jhavar (Alternate) 

Shri V. N. Das 

Shri K. R, Sharma 

ShriJ. N.Sharma 

DR P. N. VlSHWANATHAN 

Shri V. R. Jaishima 

Shri R. Venugopal (Alternate) 

Shri M. S, Sultania 

Shri K. G. Nig am (Alternate) 

Dr P. S. Venkataramani 

Dr A. K. Saxena (Alternate) 
DrM.Sengupta 

Dr (Ms) Indrani Chandrashekharan (Alternate) 

Shri M. P. Singh 

Shri N. C. Tiwari (Alternate) 

Dr D. J. Parikh 

Dr T. S. Patel (Alternate) 

Dr B. V. Bapat 

Shri M. B. Surve (Alternate) 

Shri P. M. Rao 

Shri V, B. Patil (Alternate) 

Representative 

Shri A. C . S rfvastava 

Shri A. K. Mehra 

Shri T. S. Krishnan 

Shri J. P. Azariah Winston (Alternate) 

Shri Amy Panchal 

Shri Sadhan Mukherjee (Alternate) 

Shri Lajinder Singh , Director & Head (CHD) 
[Representing Director General (Ex-officio)) 



Member- Secretary 

Shri N. K. Pal 
Director (CHD), BIS 



(Continued on page 11) 



10 



IS 14985 : 2001 



{Continued from page 10) 



Explosive/Flammable Substances Subcommittee, CHD 7 : 2 



Organization 

Indian Petrochemical Corporation Limited, Vadodara 

Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 

Centre for Environment & Explosives Safety, DRDO, 
Delhi 

Department of Explosive, Nagpur 

Directorate General of Factory Advice & Labour Institute, 
Kolkata 

Directorate General of Ordinance Factory, Kolkata 

Directorate General Mines Safety, Dhanbad 

ICJ Limited (Explosives Division), Kolkata 

IDL Industries Limited, Hyderabad 

Indian Chemical Manufacturers' Association, New Delhi 
Loss Prevention Association, Mumbai 

Ministry of Defence (DGQA), Pune 

Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi 
National Organic Chemical Industries Limited, Mumbai 

Oil Industry Safety Directorate, New Delhi 



Representative(s) 

Shri J. N. Sharma ( Convener ) 

Dr B. N. Rathi 

Dr A. K. Bhalla 

Dr K, S. Uppal (Alternate) 

Shri S. K. Bhardwaj 

Dr A. K. Majumder 

Shrj K. Balasubramanian (Alternate) 

Dr D. R. Mishra 
Shrj A. K. Gupta 
Representative 
Shri M. Ramakrishna 

Dr R. Sundar Rajan (Alternate) 

Shri V. N. Das 

Shri Abhlht Das 

Shri P. T. Deqtale (Alternate) 

ShriN.V.Pillai 

Dr. A. K. Sarangi (Alternate) 
Shrimati Sanchita Jindal 

DrB. V. Bapat 

Shri M. B. Surve (Alternate) 

Representative 



11